Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth

Volume 5, 2012

[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 5, No. 3, Fall 2012″ open=”1″ style=”2″]


pp. 351-352 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0039
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Object Lesson

“Our Community Helpers” and the American Feminist Struggle against Stereotypes
pp. 353-357 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0042


The Girls of 83 Round Hill Road: Boarding Houses, Social Interaction, and the Culture of Consumption at Smith College, 1892–1895
pp. 359-392 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0045
By Emily Hamilton-Honey

Abstract: By utilizing unique source material preserved in the scrapbooks of Smith College women, this article examines the links between the emerging culture of consumption in the late nineteenth century, the carefully regulated beginnings of higher education for women, and the new social spaces that college women created for themselves. Scrapbooks such as these provide firsthand, unmediated accounts of personal experience and offer a myriad of evidence concerning historical social patterns. Examining one group of students who shared a boardinghouse at Smith College in the 1890s, this article asserts that their subversive navigation of personal and social space within their boardinghouse and the town of Northampton, Massachusetts, was part of a larger historical pattern. Consumption of goods and services in the company of oth- ers enabled these women to negotiate a balance between private institutional space and public consumer spaces, gaining a considerable amount of personal autonomy and independence.

Food Rationing and Children’s Self-Reliance in Japan, 1942–1952
pp. 393-418 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0032
By L. Halliday Piel

Abstract: This paper focuses on the intersection between (1) childhood hunger in wartime Japan, (2) gov- ernment policy for keeping children fed, and (3) children’s self-help strategies to feed them- selves in response to the shortcomings of government policy. It shows a discrepancy between the wartime state’s interest in raising healthy children to make fit soldiers and what was actually done to keep children healthy. This paper argues that Japanese preteens could not rely entirely on parental and state protection and became actively engaged in their own survival.

“My Room! Private! Keep Out! This Means You!”: A Brief Overview of the Emergence of the Autonomous Teen Bedroom in Post–World War II America
pp. 419-443 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0034
By Jason Reid

Abstract: This article offers a brief explanation as to why the autonomous teen bedroom became a normative feature of family life in the United States during the years following World War Two. An exclusive space that was largely restricted to middle-class, urban-dwelling girls during the Victorian era and interwar years, the teen bedroom underwent a process of democratization during the postwar years, as demographic/economic trends, shifting views on child-rearing, and the flowering of a consumer-oriented teen culture helped lay the groundwork for the emergence of the teen bedroom ideal among boys and girls from a wide variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Particular attention is paid to shifts in family size, income, and home size; the roles played by American youth and various business interests in turning the teen bedroom into a favored site of leisure and consumption; and the growing importance of child development theory and popular child-rearing advice in positioning the teen bedroom as an important tool in the maturation process.

Pricing the Priceless Child: A Retrospective

A Child Comes of Age: Viviana Zelizer: Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children: A Retrospective
pp. 445-448 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0036
By Birgitte Søland

The Priceless Child Turns Twenty-seven
pp. 449-456 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0038
By Viviana A. Zelizer

Viviana Zelizer : Giving Meaning to the History of Childhood
pp. 457-461 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0041
By Paula S. Fass

The Priceless Child as History
pp. 462-467 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0044
By Michael B. Katz

Pricing The Priceless Child: A Wonderful Problematic
pp. 468-473 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0047
By Daniel Thomas Cook

Pricing the Priceless Child as a Teaching Treasure
pp. 474-480 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0033
By Barrie Thorne

Teaching Pricing the Priceless Child in a Global Context
pp. 481-484 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0035
By Linda Gordon

Book Reviews

Generations Past: Youth in East African History (review)
pp. 485-489 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0037
By Timothy Cleaveland

Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture (review)
pp. 490-492 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0040
By Madeleine Yue Dong

You Can Help Your Country: English Children’s Work during the Second World War (review)
pp. 493-495 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0043
By Lee A. Talley

Raising Racists: The Socialization of White Children in the Jim Crow South (review)
pp. 496-498 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0046
By Susan Eckelmann


pp. 499-501 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0048


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 5, No. 2, Spring 2012″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 179-180 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0022
By Laura L. Lovett

Object Lesson

Teaching Children Confidence in a High Tech World: The Netherlands 1950-1962
pp. 181-191 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0025
By Dick van Lente


Education’s Unfulfilled Promise: The Politics of Schooling for African American Children in Nineteenth Century New York City
pp. 193-218 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0028
By Jane E. Dabel

Masculinity, the Body, and Coming of Age in the Nineteenth-Century Russian Cadet Corps
pp. 219-238 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0031
By Rebecca Friedman

Gender and Generation in Swedish School Radio Broadcasts in the 1930s: An Exploratory Case Study
pp. 239-259 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0017
By Anne-Li Lindgren

Treasured Memories: Growing Up German-Russian on the Northern Plains
pp. 260-282 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0019
By Jessica Clark

Our Genius, Goodness, and Gumption: Child Actresses and National Identity in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America
pp. 283-308 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0021
By Nan Mullenneaux

Contemporary Children

Juárez: Presente y Futuro, A Children’s City Drawn
pp. 309-321 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0024
Denise S. Ortega, Mariana Ortega

Book Reviews

Industrial Violence and the Legal Origins of Child Labor (review)
pp. 323-327 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0027
By Corinne T. Field

Suspended Animation: Children’s Picture Books and the Fairy Tale of Modernity (review)
pp. 328-330 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0030
By Meredith A. Bak

Boys and Girls in No Man’s Land: English-Canadian Children and the First World War (review)
pp. 331-333 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0016
By Kristine Alexander

Disciplining Women: Alpha Kappa Alpha, Black Counterpublics, and the Cultural Politics of Black Sororities (review)
pp. 334-336 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0018
By Diana B. Turk

Not in This Family: Gays and the Meaning of Kinship in Postwar America (review)
pp. 337-339 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0020
By Gabriel Rosenberg

Schooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861-1876 (review)
pp. 340-342 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0023
By Kim Cary Warren

Boy Scouts of America: A Centennial History, and: The Scouting Party: Pioneering and Preservation, Progressivism and Preparedness in the Making of the Boy Scouts of America (review)
pp. 343-347 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0026
By Ben Jordan


pp. 348-349 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0029


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 5, No. 1, Winter 2012″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 1-3 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0006
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Object Lesson

Children, Ideology, and Iconography: How Babies Rule the World
pp. 5-13 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0009
By Karen Dubinsky

Presidential Address

Why the History of Childhood Matters
pp. 15-28 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0012
By Steven Mintz


Springtime and Morning Suns: “Youth” as a Political Category in Twentieth-century China
pp. 31-51 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0014
By Fabio Lanza

Abstract: This paper looks at the complex history of youth movements in twentieth-century China in order to investigate the connection (one I find problematic) between, on the one hand, the indisputable and massive presence of young people in political events and, on the other, the inscription and justification of the political significance of these events under the category of “youth.” I analyze three cases in the long history of Chinese student activism— May Fourth 1919, the initial phase of the Cultural Revolution in 1966–67, and the Beijing spring of 1989—to pursue precisely the question of whether in these movements of young people, “youth” was a category of politics, or, to put it differently, whether the political significance of these events was at least in part expressed and realized through the signifier “youth.” By doing so, I disarticulate the seemingly “natural” connection between political activism of young people and the framing of that activism in terms of “youth.”

Children of the Revolution: Parents, Children, and the Revolutionary Struggle in Late Imperial Russia
pp. 52-86 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0001
By Katy Turton

Abstract: While there has been a considerable growth in scholarly interest in Russian child- hood and youth, the presence of children in the revolutionary movement has largely been overlooked. Studies of female revolutionaries have acknowledged that family concerns often had an impact on women’s party careers, but few have explored fully the relationship between mothers and their children. Similarly, “general” historical works on the Russian revolution have rarely engaged with questions about the family lives of the predominantly male party members. This article will assess how becoming a parent affected the careers of both male and female revolutionaries, as well as the ways in which familial concerns and the presence of children had an impact on the movement itself. It will highlight that children could have both positive and negative effects on the operations of the underground, at times disrupting activities, but at others proving to be useful decoys and helpers. Children’s attitudes to their parents’ revolutionary careers will also be examined, highlighting that while some children wished they had less politically active parents, others enthusiastically helped the movement. Though expanding the scholarly gaze on the Russian underground to take in the presence of children does not change the grand narrative of the revolution, it enriches our understanding considerably and offers a new insight into the daily struggles of the revolutionary movement.

They “Used to Tear Around the Campus Like Savages”: Children’s and Youth’s Activities in the Santo Tomás Internment Camp, 1942-1945
pp. 87-117 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0003
By Jennifer Robin Terry

Abstract: Commencing late 1941, Japanese soldiers apprehended and interned Western colonials throughout the South Pacific. Drawing on memoirs, diaries, camp documents, and other historical accounts, this article analyzes the intersection of Western mores, wartime captivity, and childhood as it examines the ways Western civilian internees dealt with the hardship and humiliation of imprisonment in the Santo Tomás Internment Camp in Manila. To some extent, internees normalized their daily lives by creating a community that mirrored Western culture and society. Directing and organizing children’s and adolescent’s activities was one key to this normalization process. In creating structure, order, and affirming children’s worth within their community, Western internees sought to preserve and reinforce cultural mores and manners in the face of Japanese ascendency. Further, this study acknowledges and highlights children’s agency, exploring their reactions to adults (both Western and Japanese), relationships with one another, and their manipulation of the environment. It appears that, at least initially, many children experienced a degree of freedom within captivity that they had not known prior to war. This study is significant because it complicates current adult-centric studies of World War II internment in the Pacific and illustrates children’s integral role in community and cultural identity.

Childhood in the Maelstrom of Political Unrest: The Childtowns (Παιδοπόλεις/Paidopoleis) and the Experience of Displacement in Thrace during the Greek Civil War (1946-1949)
pp. 118-149 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0005
By Vassiliki Vassiloudi, Vassiliki Theodorou

Abstract: Inscribed in the current historiography on World War II childhoods, this contribu- tion, based on oral testimonies and written sources, explores the fortunes of Greek children from the region of Thrace in the aftermath of World War II. During the Greek Civil War (1946–1949), fought between the Communists and the anticommunists, children were forced to leave their native villages and be interned in the “Childtowns,” special institutions devel- oped to house them, so as to be protected from the dangerous “Other”: the Greek Communists. The paper probes issues such as the conditions of the children’s transportation from their native villages; the manner and the reasons that these relocations were organized; children’s living conditions initially in their native villages and, later, in the “Childtowns”; the informants’ feelings about their displacement, albeit interpreted through the lens of memory; and the children’s ideological formation within the framework of modernization.

Book Reviews

pp. 151-153 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0015
By Susan Miller

Tituba of Salem Village (review)
pp. 154-156 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0008
By Anna Mae Duane

Suffering Childhood in Early America: Violence, Race, and the Making of the Child Victim (review)
pp. 157-159 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0011
By Julie Sievers

The Nurture of Nature: Childhood, Antimodernism, and Ontario Summer Camps, 1920-55 (review)
pp. 160-162 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0013
By James Onusko

Who Gets a Childhood? Race and Juvenile Justice in Twentieth-Century Texas (review)
pp. 163-165 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0000
By Jennifer Trost

Lost Kids: Vulnerable Children and Youth in Twentieth-Century Canada and the United States (review)
pp. 166-168 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0002
By Myra Rutherdale

The Forgotten Generation: American Children and World War II, and: The Lost Children: Reconstructing Europe’s Families after World War II (review)
pp. 169-173 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0004
By Sara Fieldston

Girls’ Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century (review)
pp. 174-176 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0007
By Emily Bruce


pp. 177-178 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2012.0010


Volume 4, 2011

[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 4, No. 3, Fall 2011″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 357-358 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0044
By Laura L. Lovett

Object Lesson

Salmon, Gulls, and Baboons?: Oh My
pp. 359-367 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0035
By Erika Lorraine Milam


“Personal Powers of the Child”: Object Lessons and Languages of Agency in the Sciences of Childhood
pp. 369-381 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0038
By Anna Christina Rose

“Locke’s Children”
pp. 382-402 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0041
By Adriana Silvia Benzaquén

A Family Science: The Baby Biography in Imperial Germany
pp. 403-418 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0047
By Amanda M. Brian

“Living Machines”: Performance and Pedagogy at Robert Owen’s Institute for the Formation of Character, New Lanark, 1816-1828
pp. 419-433 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0033
By Cornelia Lambert

Picturing Nature and Childhood at the American Museum of Natural History and the Brooklyn Children’s Museum, 1899-1930
pp. 434-469 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0039
By Rebecca Stiles Onion

The Evolution of Childhood
pp. 470-494 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0042
By Anthony Volk

Contemporary Children

Children and the Culture of Climate Change
pp. 497-505 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0045
By Sheridan Bartlett

Book Reviews

Debutante: Rites and Regalia of American Debdom (review)
pp. 509-511 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0034
By Amy L. Best

The Mind of the Child: Child Development in Literature, Science, and Medicine, 1840-1900 (review)
pp. 512-514 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0036
By Catherine Cronquist Browning

The Dead End Kids of St. Louis: Homeless Boys and the People Who Tried to Save Them (review)
pp. 515-517 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0048
By Margaret Garb

Teaching Children Science: Hands-On Nature Study in North America, 1890-1930 (review)
pp. 518-520 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0046
By Rebecca Stiles Onion

The Company He Keeps: A History of White College Fraternities, and: The Lost Boys of Zeta Psi: A Historical Archaeology of Masculinity at a University Fraternity (review)
pp. 521-525 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0040
By Clifford Putney

Raising Your Kids Right: Children’s Literature and American Political Conservatism (review)
pp. 526-528 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0043
By Catherine E. Rymph


pp. 529-530 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0037


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 2011″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 181-182 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0022
By Brian D. Bunk

Object Lesson

Finding Fanny
pp. 183-195 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0025
By Martha A. Sandweiss


“Made Women of When They are Mere Children”: Mary Wollstonecraft’s Critique of Eighteenth-Century Girlhood
pp. 197-222 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0028
By Corinne Field

Rewriting The Token of Love: Sentimentalists, Sophisticates, and the Transformation of American Girlhood, 1862–1940
pp. 223-256 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0031
By Daniel A. Cohen

Political Parenting in Colonial Lebanon
pp. 257-281 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0017
By Taylor Long

Too Young to Fight: Anarchist Youth Groups and the Spanish Second Republic
pp. 282-307 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0019
By Jordi Getman-Eraso

Contemporary Children

The Social Significance of Street Soccer in Greater Cairo: Game Structure and Social Functions
pp. 309-328 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0021
By Nashaat Hussein

Book Reviews

Images of Children in Byzantium (review)
pp. 330-333 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0024
By Richard Greenfield

Babies for the Nation: The Medicalization of Motherhood in Quebec, 1910–1970 (review)
pp. 334-336 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0027
By Tarah Brookfield

The Unwanted Child: The Fate of Foundlings, Orphans, and Juvenile Criminals in Early Modern Germany (review)
pp. 337-339 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0030
By Helmut Puff

Children As Treasures: Childhood and the Middle Class in Early Twentieth Century Japan (review)
pp. 340-342 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0032
By L. Halliday Piel

Reason’s Children: Childhood in Early Modern Philosophy (review)
pp. 343-345 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0018
By Ines Meier

Girls, Feminism, and Grassroots Literacies: Activism in the GirlZone (review)
pp. 346-348 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0020
By Caitlin L. Ryan

Victory Girls, Khaki-Wackies, and Patriotutes: The Regulation of Female Sexuality during World War II (review)
pp. 349-351 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0023
By Nancy K. Bristow

The Glass House Boys of Pittsburgh: Law, Technology, and Child Labor (review)
pp. 352-354 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0026
By Perry Blatz


pp. 355-356 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0029


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter 2011″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 1-2 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0008
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Object Lesson

“The Bridge Connecting Them to Ourselves”: Childhood, Photography and Memory in Contemporary China
pp. 3-10 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0011
By Laura Wexler


The Paradox of American Adolescence
pp. 11-25 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0014
By Michael Zuckerman

Abstract: A century ago, adolescence was understood as a stage of life marked by awakening sexual urgency and by rebellious alliance with fellow teens against adult authority. It was a time of storm and stress. Modern students of adolescence no longer find much evidence of that teen turmoil. On the empirical evidence, they pronounce the great majority of adolescent experi- ence continuous with childhood patterns and congruent with adult formations to come. But vernacular American perceptions have proven impervious to this new academic understand- ing. In the popular culture, adolescents still seem antagonistic to society. Adults still see teens as out of hand and beyond control. They still mistrust them and expect the worst of them. They still fear them and their peer culture. This essay examines that paradox: no matter what research reveals, belief in the generation gap and its attendant age-animosities still prevails in contemporary America. Generational antagonism makes sense to Americans, even if social scientists can’t find much of it. This essay proposes that persisting American obsession with adolescent transgression reflects persisting adult anxiety about standards in a society that has been uncertain of its standards for four centuries.

Between Cultured Young Men and Mischievous Children: Youth, Transgression, and Protest in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexico
pp. 26-57 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0000
By Jaime Pensado

Abstract: This article traces the progression of “youth” in Mexico from 1867 to c. 1900. It argues that the historical “images” of youth that developed during this period are telling as to youth culture, but also reveal much concerning greater societal and national aspirations. As this burgeoning vision of youth took shape in the late nineteenth century, its preeminent expression was the preparatoriano, or the student of the National Preparatory School. This “positivist image” of youth, hitherto overlooked in the historiography, was particularly celebratory and bespoke the transformative nature of the modern state. This group of young students, however, was not homogenous. As the restored nation tried its find its course (through local notions of liberalism and positivism), different notions of youth were imagined, experienced, further defined, and contested. This relationship between official ideology and reality was evident in the subcultural behavior of young men and the reactions these contested images generated among the old or the parent culture. This essay traces the contested relationship between official representation and subculture in the rise of student activism, the appropriation of new and public spaces, the creation of innovative style, and the celebration of an illicit bohemian lifestyle, on the one hand, and in public reaction, on the other.

Sparing the White Child: The Lessons of Uncle Tom’s Cabin for Children in an Age of Segregation
pp. 58-85 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0003
By Barbara Hochman

Abstract: Children’s editions of a popular novel inevitably rewrite the source, reworking it for new ends. Such revisions reflect contemporary notions about the uses of children’s books and governing assumptions about what children are, want, or need. This essay explores the cultural significance of the Young Folks Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a neglected turn-of-the-century children’s edition of Stowe’s novel, adapted by Grace Duffie Boylan with illustrations by Ike Morgan. First published in 1901, the book was reissued by a variety of publishers until as late as 1956. The Young Folks Uncle Tom’s Cabin was radically different from the tale that adults wept over and children eagerly devoured when Stowe’s novel first appeared. Editorial changes designed to adapt Uncle Tom’s Cabin for “young folks” at the turn of the century imply a series of cultural transformations—altered racial politics, the consolidation of class divisions, increasingly rigid gender binaries, and mounting uncertainty about childhood in the wake of new theories and childrearing practices. Although the Young Folks Uncle Tom’s Cabin reinforces the idea of childhood (for some) as a playful, separate sphere, it reflects contemporary anxieties both about race-relations and about what little white boys and girls are made of.

Child Labor in the Gold Coast: The Economics of Work, Education, and the Family in Late-Colonial African Childhoods, c. 1940-57
pp. 88-115 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0005
By Jack Lord

Abstract: Historical knowledge of childhood in the Gold Coast (modern Ghana) is sparse and too often disconnected from a global historiography that has convincingly demonstrated the “child” to be a social construct. In contemporary discourse the “African child” is most commonly portrayed as either aspiring scholar or helpless victim—images that are echoed in the fleet- ing appearances of children in Africanist historiography. This essay, by contrast, explores the economic aspects of childhood in the colonial periphery and paints a more complex picture of the “African child.” Children in the twentieth-century Gold Coast were vital economic actors and agents: at once producers, consumers, and accumulators of wealth. They remained so despite the political and commercial upheavals of the colonial period. Exploring the economic use and the social purpose of child labor illuminates both the material experience of children and their place in the household and wider society—and it sheds light, too, on the question of why both illiteracy and child labor are stubbornly persistent in modern Ghana.

Gender, Age, and the Abandonment of Children in Eighteenth-Century Dijon, France
pp. 116-135 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0007
By Jessica Nelson

Abstract: This paper draws on the daily schedule and institutional records of two institutions for abandoned children in Dijon, France, to describe the lives of the boys of the Bonnets Rouges and the girls of Sainte-Anne from 1706 to 1754. These institutions served as a respite for families who found it difficult to provide for their children. I argue that families in need used the institution to better their children’s chances of survival since admission to an institution gave the children opportunities for education and training as well as shelter, food, and clothing. The situation in eighteenth-century Dijon provides an excellent case study of how the provincial and city governments provided poor relief. The study of these institutions can provide us not only with clues about social attitudes toward the poor during this time period and insights into the various social and economic pressures that caused some families to abandon their children but also enable us to assess the roles gender and age played in abandonment.

Contemporary Children

Children in the Aftermath of Immigration Enforcement
pp. 137-154 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0010
By Ajay Chaudry

Book Reviews

pp. 155-157 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0004
By Susan Miller

If We Could Change the World: Young People and America’s Long Struggle for Racial Equality (review)
pp. 158-160 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0006
By Jon Pahl

Marching for Freedom: Walk Together, Children, and Don’t You Grow Weary (review)
pp. 161-163 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0009
By Rebecca de Schweinitz

Youth in the Fatherless Land: War Pedagogy, Nationalism, and Authority in Germany, 1914-1918 (review)
pp. 164-166 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0016
By Bryan Ganaway

Schooling Citizens: The Struggle for African American Education in Antebellum America (review)
pp. 167-169 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0013
By Ellen L. Berg

Mobilizing Youth: Communists and Catholics in Interwar France (review)
pp. 170-172 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0002
By Ben Mercer

Turning to Nature in Germany: Hiking, Nudism, and Conservation, 1900-1940 (review)
pp. 173-175 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0012
By Jason Tebbe

Connecting Kids to History with Museum Exhibitions (review)
pp. 176-178 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0015
By Megan Searing Young


pp. 179-180 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2011.0001


Volume 3, 2010

[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 3, No. 3, Fall 2010″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 313-315 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0009
By Martha Saxton

Object Lesson

The Young Charlotte Brontë
pp. 317-339 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0012
By Katherine Dalsimer


Centuries of Childhood: An Anniversary—and an Epitaph?
pp. 341-365 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0000
By Colin Heywood
Disciplining Boys: Labor, Gender, Generation, and the Penal System in Barbados, 1880-1930
pp. 366-390 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0002
By Cecilia Green
Caring for Poor and Fatherless Children in London, c. 1350-1550
pp. 391-410 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0004
By Stephanie Tarbin
“Creating Free and Good People”: Idealization of the Countryside in the Berlin Orphan Administration, 1890-1914
pp. 411-426 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0006
By Brian J. Els

Book Reviews

Children in Slavery through the Ages (review)
pp. 427-431 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0008
By Colleen A. Vasconcellos
Children Bound to Labor: The Pauper Apprentice System in Early America (review)
pp. 432-434 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0011
By Darcy R. Fryer
Nefarious Crimes, Contested Justice: Illicit Sex and Infanticide in the Republic of Venice, 1557-1789 (review)
pp. 435-437 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0014
By Jutta Sperling
Recuerdos: Basque Children Refugees in Great Britain. Niños wascos refugiados en Gren Bretana (review)
pp. 438-440 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0001
By Dominique Marshall
Russia’s Factory Children: State, Society, and Law, 1800-1917 (review)
pp. 441-443 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0003
By Laurie Bernstein
Raising Freedom’s Child: Black Children and Visions of the Future after Slavery (review)
pp. 444-445 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0005
By Psyche Williams-Forson
The Queer Child, or Growing Sideways in the Twentieth Century (review)
pp. 446-448 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0007
By Cynthia Degnan
Scouting for Girls: A Century of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (review)
pp. 449-451 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0010
By Kristine Alexander


pp. 452-453 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.2010.0013


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 2010″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 143-144 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0102
By Brian D. Bunk

Object Lesson

The Progressive Era Appropriation of Children’s Play
pp. 147-151 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0099
By Allen Guttmann


Childhood and Memory
pp. 155-164 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0096
By Paula S. Fass
Defining Happy Childhoods: Assessing a Recent Change
pp. 165-186 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0093
By Peter N. Stearns
Playing White Men: American Football and Manhood at the Carlisle Indian School, 1893–1904
pp. 187-209 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0092
By Matthew Bentley
Character Dolls: Consumer Culture and Debates over Femininity in Late Imperial Germany (1900–1918)
pp. 210-232 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0095
By Bryan Ganaway
Photographs of the Child in Canadian Pictorial from 1906 to 1916: A Reflection of the Ideas and Values of English Canadians about Themselves and “Other” Canadians
pp. 233-263 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0098
By Loren Lerner

Contemporary Children

Between Restavek and Relocation: Children and Communities in Transnational Adoption
pp. 267-292 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0101
By Alice Hearst

Book Reviews

The Children of Chinatown: Growing up Chinese American in San Francisco, 1850–1920 (review)
pp. 295-297 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0103
By M. Colette Plum
Normal at Any Cost: Tall Girls, Short Boys, and the Medical Industry’s Quest to Manipulate Height (review)
pp. 298-300 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0090
By Heather Munro Prescott
Babysitter: An American History (review)
pp. 301-303 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0091
By Ilana Nash
The Power of the Zoot: Youth Culture and Resistance During World War II (review)
pp. 304-306 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0094
By Eric C. Schneider
Abandoned: Foundlings in Nineteenth-Century New York City (review)
pp. 307-309 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0097
By Julie Vandivere


pp. 310-311 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0100


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 3, No. 1, Winter 2010″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 1-3 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0079
By Laura L. Lovett

Object Lesson

On an Object Lesson, or Don’t Eat the Evidence
pp. 7-12 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0081
By Sarah Anne Carter

Abstract: Object lessons are a flexible mode of pedagogy that was popular in the second half of the nineteenth century in schoolrooms throughout the United Kingdom and the United States. This category of lesson relied on material things—“objects”—and images to convey information to children about the senses and sense perception as well as about geography, natural history, industry, commodities, and religion. In an ideal object lesson, teachers were to move from the specific to the abstract, starting with the study of a material thing and circling outward to encompass its possible meanings. This short “Object Lesson” emulates this nineteenth-century pedagogy in its focus on a particular material example of this historic classroom practice.


Broadcasting Benevolence: Images of the Child in American, Soviet and NLF Propaganda in Vietnam, 1964–1973
pp. 15-38 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0083
By Margaret Peacock

Abstract: From 1964 to 1973, Soviet, American, and Vietcong propagandists generated incredible numbers of pamphlets, television shows, films, and radio programs that focused on the image of the child. How these depictions of children were created and what functions they performed as symbols of national strength and mobilization are the subjects of this article. Images of youth provide a category of analysis for understanding how these propaganda programs succeeded and sometimes failed in their attempts to win the allegiances of the Vietnamese people. Based on previously unexplored transnational sources, this article examines the contested meanings of the child’s image as a way to understand the conceptual boundaries that were established and transgressed by the Soviet, American, and Vietcong propaganda programs. By comparing and contrasting these programs with each other, this article shows how images of youth served as cultural currency in each side’s efforts to determine what was at stake in the war and what needed to be done to win it. Youth, which played such a central role in articulating and humanizing Soviet, American, and Vietcong policies, took on different meanings when contextualized by the moral and political ambiguities of the Vietnam War.

Little Lord Fauntleroy and the Evolution of American Boyhood
pp. 39-64 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0085
By Katherine L. Carlson

Abstract: This paper evaluates late nineteenth and early twentieth-century definitions of idealized childhood through an analysis of the rapid rise and fall of Frances Hodgson Burnett’s Little Lord Fauntleroy. The 1886 novel of a British-born and American-bred author, Little Lord Fauntleroy tells the story of an American-raised child whose British grandfather suddenly calls him to England to become an earl. Fauntleroy’s initial popularity, the paper argues, can be credited to his embodiment of concepts of innocent childhood found in lingering constructions of the Romantic child still flourishing on both sides of the Atlantic. The essay explores how in the early twentieth-century United States, such ideals came to be considered threats to nationalism because they smacked of an allegedly degenerate effeminacy caused by over- civilization. Though the infamously frilly Fauntleroy suit is actually only briefly described in the novel, it was widely marketed to early readers, and this paper contends that it became a straw man read in contrast to teleological conceptions of U.S. identity which venerated constructions of rugged, rebellious male adolescence as evidence of America’s rightful place at the pinnacle of social evolution. The paper concludes that the drama of Little Lord Fauntleroy’s reception history suggests that the enormous cultural capital of the figure of the child stems from the way in which the transience and dependency of childhood exposes it to continual social repurposing under the cover of outwardly timeless essentialism.

Between Households: Children in Blended and Transitional Households in Late-Medieval England
pp. 65-86 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0087
By Philippa Maddern

Abstract: The predominance of the nuclear family in England since the fourteenth century and the concomitant theory that English children normatively lived with their families of origin at least until adolescence has been an article of belief almost unquestioned in late-medieval English historiography over the past forty years. Studies of late-medieval childhood have, in fact, rarely analyzed the lived situations of medieval children, instead primarily addressing the literary or prescriptive representations of childhood or children’s (mostly upper-class boys’) education. This paper throws such assumptions and approaches into question. I analyze accounts of the situations of both boys and girls aged under thirteen, from a wide range of social backgrounds, embedded in the records of church courts and Chancery and Papal Petitions in the period 1350–1500. I argue that a range of factors—most notably death of a parent and illegitimate birth—rendered children liable to be shifted from household to household, often outside their nuclear family altogether. These situations may not have been rare; analysis of records of Inquisitions Post Mortem shows that in nearly twenty percent of a large sample of late-medieval English families, at least one parent died before the eldest child of the couple was thirteen. Furthermore, death of a father, or illegitimacy where the parents were either clerics or servants, could send children into a great range of non-nuclear family situations—short-term wardships with strangers, underage marriages, a variety of boarding arrangements. Hence, though our sources do not allow a rigorous statistical study of the numbers of late-medieval English children living outside (or between) nuclear families, they enable us better to appreciate the mobility of children outside the nuclear family and bring into view the great range of household situations in which they lived.

Double Exposures: Twin Sisters’ Autobiographies and the Experience of Twinship
pp. 87-104 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0089
By Sharon Halevi

Abstract: The article considers how twins discursively negotiated and performed their twinship over the twentieth century through an examination of the jointly written narratives of self of three sets of identical, female, American twins. These years witnessed a shift in the academic, medical, and lay attitudes toward twins—a historical and social shift that I argue is reflected in their narratives and in their perceptions of self. Taken together these three joint autobiographies suggest that researchers’ findings regarding the movement of twins along a scale from compliance to contestation to denial is also a temporal movement, reflecting a gradual shift in social and gender expectations regarding twinship. The article sheds light on the history of the lived experience of twinship, in particular that of female twins, and reflects on a more general historical evolution of twentieth-century women’s performance of their individuality. After an introduction to the six women and their narratives of self, I turn to outline how each set of twins presented their twinship and individuality in their narrative. I conclude by considering some aspects concerning the historicity and gendering of twinship.

Contemporary Children

Entering into the Fray: Historians of Childhood and Public Policy
pp. 107-126 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0078
By Barbara Beatty, Julia Grant

Abstract: Can historians of childhood inform children’s policy, and if so, how? Spurred by a panel at the 2009 meeting of the Society for the History of Childhood and Youth, this examination of scholarship on orphanages, juvenile delinquency, preschools, and the “boy problem,” suggests that in addressing themes such as agency, social control, children’s rights, and the relationship of the child and the state, many historians have attempted to provide perspective on policy issues. An outgrowth in part of concerns about children’s policy in the 1960s, much research in the history of childhood explores how past policies went awry. In analyzing child abuse and abductions, for instance, historians have drawn attention to how panics are constructed and affect policy, with sometimes problematic consequences. When historians “enter the fray” of child advocacy, as have many of the leading players in the SHCY, their work can be used in unsettling ways when stakeholders seek simplistic solutions to complex problems. At the same time, the authors believe that there are many lessons from the past that can be used to illuminate contemporary conversations about children’s needs and rights and promising policies for bettering their lives.

Book Reviews

An Introduction to Childhood: Anthropological Perspectives on Children’s Lives (review)
pp. 129-131 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0080
By J.D. Roberts
Girls in Trouble with the Law (review)
pp. 132-134 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0082
By Carrie Hagan
Encounters with Wild Children. Temptation and Disappointment in the Study of Human Nature (review)
pp. 135-138 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0084
By Sophie Heywood
Sex Goes to School: Girls and Sex Education Before the 1960s (review)
pp. 139-140 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0086
By Rachel Devlin


pp. 141-142 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0088


Volume 2, 2009

[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 2009″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 301-302 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0074
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Object Lesson

Barbie in “LIFE”: The Life of Barbie
pp. 303-311 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0073
By Miriam Forman-Brunell


Rite de Passage? The Children’s Crusade and Medieval Childhood
pp. 315-332 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0075
By Gary Dickson

Abstract: One of the most extraordinary and memorable episodes of the crusading era, the Children’s Crusade (1212) was medieval Europe’s first youth movement. Young people (pueri), shepherds and peasants primarily, took part in a futile venture to regain the Holy Land and the True Cross. Contrary to the views of a revisionist historian, youths did indeed compose the core group of this popular crusade revival, although at a later stage adults—men, women, young mothers, the elderly—joined it as well. This paper argues that one possible way of interpreting the Children’s Crusade is according to the schema laid down in the anthropological classic Les rites de passage (1908) by the French ethnographer and folklorist Arnold van Gennep. The Children’s Crusade exemplifies the problem of coming of age in the Middle Ages, especially for peasant youths, who lacked access to the rituals of knighthood available to the chivalric aristocracy.

This I Beg my Aunt may not Know: Young Letter-Writers in Eighteenth-Century England, Peer Correspondence in a Hierarchical World
pp. 333-360 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0072
By Amy Harris

Abstract: Correspondence between youthful peers – particularly siblings – in eighteenth-century England reveals young people learning, experimenting, and even resisting the epistolary conventions espoused in letter-writing manuals. The eighteenth century saw a flourishing of letters and letter-writing manuals as sites for the teaching and learning of social protocol. Instead of seeing young people only as consumers of adult social mores, the letters allow a view of young people teaching one another as they played with standard correspondence practices. Letter-writing manuals imagined a hierarchical world where everyone knew their social, gender, and age niche, but young letter-writers pushed against the conventions as they simultaneously learned the parameters of polite society. The article uses correspondence from three middling and gentry families: the Jacksons of Gloucestershire, the Sharps of Northumberland and Durham, and the Edwards of Surrey. These letters, covering the middle decades of the eighteenth century, show young people confronting the competing eighteenth- century notions of equality and hierarchy and negotiating peer relations within a culture and society that prized status and rank.

Modernization of Welfare or Further Deprivation? State Provisions for Foundlings in the Late Ottoman Empire
pp. 361-392 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0071
By Nazan Maksudyan

Abstract: Though this history has so far received little scholarly attention, child abandonment was practiced in late Ottoman society, and its frequency was related to such factors as illegitimacy, poverty, migration, and war. Relying on Ottoman archival sources, together with periodicals and contemporary literature, this paper discerns major patterns of child abandonment in the late Ottoman Empire and discusses the history of the institutionalization and modernization of state provisions for abandoned children from a critical perspective, taking into account the experiences of infants, abandoning mothers, and wet-nurses. Traditionally stipends were assigned directly to the foundlings from central or local resources as part of the religiously determined policy to care for the needy. In an effort to organize and centralize relief, the stipends were gradually transferred to the wet-nurses, who acted as intermediary agents between the foundlings and the state. With the opening of the Dâr’ül-aceze foundling unit, the abandoned babies were taken care of by institutional, bureaucratized mechanisms in which police departments, birth registry offices, and municipalities played a part. Although these changes have been evaluated and discursively presented as the expansion of welfare policies and the modernization of the Ottoman state, from the perspective of the foundlings, the picture exposes increased deprivation, heightened mortality rates, and further suffering.

The State as Surrogate Parent: Legislating Nonmarital Sex in Colonial India, 1911–1929
pp. 393-427 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0070
By Ashwini Tambe

Abstract: This essay reviews the raising of the age of consent for nonmarital sexual relations in early twentieth century India. Historians have exhaustively studied how child marriage came to be restricted, but have largely overlooked a parallel set of legal efforts to raise the age of consent for sex outside marriage. Reformists in the 1910s and 1920s steadily increased the minimum age specifying when girls could give their consent to sex with “strangers”—those who were not their husbands. Although these measures drew on international antitrafficking discourses, their major focus lay in entrenching parental control over daughters’ sexual practices. Indeed I argue that the 1929 law restricting child marriage, which effectively undermined parental control, was facilitated by the prior and concurrent measures that fixed a higher age of consent for nonmarital sex. A key contribution of my essay is its critical analysis of how apparently protective measures undermined girls’ sexual agency. I also trace how reformists seeking to raise the age of consent positioned themselves as actors on a world stage. In situating reforms on the age of consent in India within an international circuit of influence, my analysis reaches beyond the dyad of British-Indian relations that frames many feminist histories of colonial India.

Living on the Frontlines: Black Teenagers on the Move to Freedom
pp. 428-450 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0069
By Jill Ogline Titus

Abstract: This article analyzes a set of fifty-five interviews conducted with black teenagers during the summer of 1963 in Prince Edward County, Virginia: site of the nation’s most determined attempt to circumvent the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education through abandoning public education altogether. Caught up in currents larger than themselves, the teenagers’ thoughts on subjects such as the term “black,” the effectiveness of nonviolence, and the actions and motivations of white people offer a rare window into the minds of youth defining their own personhood against the backdrop of a rapidly changing world. Historians know relatively little about civil rights figures like the Prince Edward children, who were simultaneously protesters and victims. Many were thoroughly politicized by their experience, becoming either active resistors or thoughtful commentators on American race relations, while others remained unwitting participants in Prince Edward’s civil rights drama.

Where Am I? Refugee Youth Living in the United States
pp. 453-469 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0077
By Jacqueline R. Mosselson

Abstract: Based on a qualitative study of fifteen female refugees from Bosnia, this article explores the contribution of critical theories to refugee identity development in the context of the educational setting. The article examines both the theoretical and the practical discussions of ethnic identity development among refugees attending secondary schools in New York. By applying research from the ‘cultural turn’ to the study of refugee education and adaptation, the article challenges the validity of current educational and psychological theories in refugee adaptation, and, by extension, opens up debates around long-held beliefs about refugee ‘adap- tation’ to the United States. By examining the role of schools in adaptation, this article shows how the debates objectify the individual, and how the needs of refugee populations can be better met by their teachers and schools even when the students are academically successful. Refugees have experienced life as tenuous and fragile, and they understand the meaning of transience. Hence, they tend to strive to ensure that they have basic, transferable skills and knowledge, which they acquire through education. With a critical theoretical lens, it becomes clear that by incorporating the experiences of students into the classroom, educators not only work to overcome the hidden curriculum that confines and encloses refugees as ‘other,’ but also enrich the classroom for both the refugee students and their classmates.


pp. 471-473 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0076


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 2009″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 159-160 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0059
By Martha Saxton

Object Lesson

The Mason Monteith
pp. 161-169 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0056
By Lauren F. Winner


A Somber Pedagogy—A History of the Child Death Bed Scene in Early American Children’s Religious Literature, 1674–1840
pp. 171-197 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0053
By Diana Pasulka
Sweet Childhood Lost: Idealized Images of Childhood in the British Child Rescue Literature
pp. 198-214 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0066
By Shurlee Swain

Sea Hospitals: Belgium, Sweden, and the United States

Editor’s Introduction
pp. 215-219 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0061
By Janet Golden
“They Can’t Help Getting Well Here”: Seaside Hospitals for Children in the United States: 1872–1917
pp. 220-233 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0063
By Meghan Crnic, Cynthia Connolly
Belgian Sea Hospitals and the Child at Risk: Exploring an Educational Paradox
pp. 234-248 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0065
By Bruno Vanobbergen
Swedish Seaside Sanatoria in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century
pp. 249-266 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0068
By Marie C. Nelson, Staffan Förhammar
The Importance of Identity, History, and Culture in the Wellbeing of Indigenous Youth
pp. 267-276 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0055
By Lisa Wexler

Book Reviews

Telling Stories: The Use of Personal Narratives in the Social Sciences and History (review)
pp. 277-281 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0058
By Joyce Avrech Berkman
Rituals and Patterns in Children’s Lives (review)
pp. 282-284 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0060
By Kevin L. Gooding
Culture and Redemption: Religion, the Secular, and American Literature (review)
pp. 285-287 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0062
By Jon Pahl
Queer Youth Cultures (review)
pp. 288-290 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0064
By Heather Rachelle White
Pure Beauty: Judging Race in Japanese American Beauty Pageants (review)
pp. 291-293 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0067
By Wendy Rouse Jorae
Raising an Empire: Children in Early Modern Iberia and Colonial Latin America (review)
pp. 294-296 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0054
By Karen Racine


pp. 297-299 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0057


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 2009″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 1-2 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0043
By Brian D. Bunk

Object Lesson

History in a Box: Milton Bradley’s Myriopticon
pp. 3-7 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0042
By James Marten


Anderl of Rinn, the Accusation of Jewish Ritual Murder, and the Historical Memory of Childhood
pp. 9-36 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0038
By Mathew Kuefler

Abstract: The legend of Anderl of Rinn is almost unique among the ritual murder accusations lodged against Jews during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. The story of Anderl provides a glimpse not only of the long and tragic history of anti-Semitism but also of the history of childhood. Due to a lack of sources, and the fact that his story was not recorded until decades later, it is impossible to gauge the accuracy of any elements of his life or death. The documents that exist, however, do shed an interesting light on the treatment of some children in European history since, without much in the way of facts to work with, the authors who crafted the legend of Anderl of Rinn had little choice but to portray him as a typical child, borrowing elements from the treatment of children both in their own day and in what they knew of the medieval past.

The Girl Guide Movement and Imperial Internationalism During the 1920s and 1930s
pp. 37-63 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0045
By Kristine Alexander

Abstract: While most histories of Guiding and Scouting have focused on single national contexts, this article takes a broader approach by discussing the early history of the Guide movement in England, Canada and India. It asks how the Girl Guide movement’s ideology and programs were affected by the imperialism and internationalism that characterized the 1920s and 1930s. The effects of imperial internationalism, the paper argues, were felt at the discursive level (through an emphasis on imperial and international sisterhood), on the organizational level (through bureaucratic changes leading to the formation of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts), in international gatherings, and in publications, personal correspondence, radio and cinema. However, Guiding’s varied attempts to create an egalitarian and interracial imagined community were limited by a number of factors, including economic constraints, Anglocentrism and a persistent belief in racial hierarchies.

The Thirty-Third Victim: Representations of Seung Hui Cho in the Aftermath of the “Virginia Tech Massacre”
pp. 64-82 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0041
By Kathleen W. Jones

Abstract: I was not there, on April 16, 2008, to participate in the memorial services that marked the first anniversary of the shootings at Virginia Tech. This is my university, but I was away for the year and was spared the impact of returning to the classroom immediately after the tragedy, the anxiety of coping with students who in losing friends and teachers also lost that sense of security and personal invulnerability that envelops the young. I was also not there on April 16, 2007, the day of the events that now “brand” Virginia Tech as much as its football team and funky Hokie Bird mascot. Like the rest of the nation I watched the story unfold on television and called friends and colleagues, anxious to know of their safety. It has been unsettling to be both intimately connected yet also removed from the “massacre,” the “tragedy at Virginia Tech.” I write this essay in an effort to come to terms personally with what happened at my school and as a historian who studies the lives of young people, their experiences, and the impact that youths have had in the past. I believe that how we have memorialized April 16 and how we constructed an identity for the youth who shot so many will shape the public consequences of that day and the history that is written about campus violence. Here, then, is a look at the thirty-third victim, at representations of Seung Hui Cho in the year after. I find Cho in the memorials to those who died on April 16 and also in media accounts that traced the story during its first year of life. News narratives, as Carolyn Kitch writes in her study of the media after the September 11 attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, cre- ate a framework that allow journalists and audiences alike to “assign lasting meaning to the event.”2 The Cho of the memorials and the media went through many incarnations during the months from April 16, 2007 to April 16, 2008. There were false starts and identities that disap- peared almost as quickly as they arose, until a consensus erased Cho and his suicide from the narrative and replaced him with mental illness and the problem of access to care.

Symposium: “The Crime of Precocious Sexuality: Female Juvenile Delinquency in the Progressive Era”

pp. 83-87 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0036
By William S. Bush
“The Crime of Precocious Sexuality” Celebrates Thirty Years : A Critical Appraisal
pp. 88-94 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0046
By Miroslava Chávez-García
Sex, Gender, and the History of the Adolescent Body: 30 Years after “The Crime of Precocious Sexuality”
pp. 95-102 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0039
By Tamara Myers
Showing Its Age
pp. 103-108 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0052
By Stephen Robertson
Response to Critics: Rethinking “The Crime of Precocious Sexuality”
pp. 110-124 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0040
By Steven Schlossman, Stephanie Wallach

Book Reviews

Kidnapped Souls. National Indifference and the Battle for Children in the Bohemian Lands, 1900–1948 (review)
pp. 125-129 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0049
By Luminţa Dumănescu
Designing Modern Childhoods: History, Space and the Material Culture of Childhood (review)
pp. 130-132 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0044
By Sarah Anne Carter
Standardized Childhood: The Political and Cultural Struggle Over Early Education, and: The Sandbox Investment: The Preschool Movement and Kids-First Politics (review)
pp. 133-138 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0037
By Elizabeth Rose
Reading Boyishly: Roland Barthes, J. M. Barrie, Jacques Henri Lartigue, Marcel Proust, and D. W. Winnicott (review)
pp. 139-141 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0034
By Joel D. Shrock
Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism (review)
pp. 142-144 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0051
By James Marten
Imagined Orphans: Poor Families, Child Welfare, and Contested Citizenship in London (review)
pp. 145-147 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0048
By Alysa Levene
Kids Rule! Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship (review)
pp. 148-150 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0050
By Pennee Bender
Clinging to Mammy: The Faithful Slave in Twentieth-Century America (review)
pp. 151-153 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0047
By Robin Bernstein


pp. 155-157 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0035


Volume 1, 2008

[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 1, No. 3, Fall 2008″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 317-318 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0018
By Laura L. Lovett

Object Lesson

Playing with Dolls
pp. 321-328 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0028
By Margaret Jacobs

Essays: Children’s Rights

The Perils of Innocence, or What’s Wrong with Putting Children First
pp. 331-350 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0021
By Linda Gordon
Children’s Rights and Children’s Action in International Relief and Domestic Welfare: The Work of Herbert Hoover Between 1914 and 1950
pp. 351-388 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0019
By Dominique Marshall

Abstract: Herbert Hoover authored three charters of rights for children. They protected a distinct place for children in society and allowed them to express their spirit and, more broadly, the renewal of democratic institutions and a world where international relations would be the responsibility of many. This article investigates the international and domestic contexts of the charters and of their uses, in order to retrieve the meanings associated with this rhetoric in its time, as well as the actual limits the promises made in the three lists contained and encountered. It is especially interested in the public role of children associated with the three charters, and with the tensions between ideas of neutrality and autonomy. Finally, it suggests some parallels with current humanitarian institutions and debates on children’s entitlements. Contemporary debates and uses are discussed around four main themes: children as bodies to be fed and cured, as emotional beings to be loved, as politically neutral citizens, and as future citizens.

Contemporary Children: The Convention on the Rights of the Child

A Cultural Bridge, Not an Imposition: Legitimizing Children’s Rights in the Eyes of Local Communities
pp. 391-413 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0023
By Afua Twum-Danso
“Do Your Promises and Tell the Truth. Treat us with Respect”: Realizing the Rights of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland
pp. 414-442 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0024
By Deena Haydon

Abstract: In 1991, the UK Government, incorporating the jurisdiction of Northern Ireland, ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Reports about progress in implementation of the Convention are submitted to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN Committee) at regular intervals. Because the Convention is not incorporated into domestic law there is no redress for breach of its Articles. But when the UK Government reported in 1994 and 1999, the UN Committee responded critically, raising a number of serious concerns and making a range of recommendations. In 2007, the UK Government submit- ted its third and fourth consolidated report. Based on consultations with 132 children and young people in Northern Ireland, this article reflects their understanding and expectations regarding rights, specifically: participation, religion and culture, protection from harm, health care, standard of living, education, age-appropriate play and leisure. Discussion of the relevance of a rights-based perspective to understanding about childhood and youth explores social constructions of ‘children’ and ‘childhood’, the centrality of participation, current promotion and protection of children’s rights. How children and young people define rights, and their lived experiences, provide an insight into the realization of children’s rights in contemporary Northern Ireland. The final words are key messages for Government from the children and young people who participated.

Book Reviews

Review Essay: The Russianists Love Their Children, Too
pp. 445-458 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0032
By Jacqueline M. Olich
Relative Intimacy: Fathers, Adolescent Daughters, and Postwar American Culture (review)
pp. 459-461 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0022
By Jessica L. Foley
Jewish Girls Coming of Age in America, 1860–1920 (review)
pp. 462-464 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0030
By Lynn D. Gordon
Female Adolescence in American Scientific Thought, 1830–1930 (review)
pp. 465-468 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0029
By Kathleen W. Jones
Children at Play: An American History (review)
pp. 469-471 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0026
By Susan Linn
Cumhuriyet’te Çocuktular [They Were Children in the Republic] (review)
pp. 472-474 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0020
By Nazan Maksudyan
Nightmare’s Fairy Tale: A Young Refugee’s Home Fronts, 1938–1948 (review)
pp. 475-477 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0031
By Sean Martin
Children’s Health Issues in Historical Perspective (review)
pp. 478-480 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0033
By Lisa Petermann
Invisible Hands: Child Labor and the State in Colonial Zimbabwe (review)
pp. 481-483 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0025
By Karen Wells


pp. 485-486 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0027


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 1, No. 2, Spring 2008″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


pp. 163-164 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0000
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Object Lesson

Fun with the Alphabet
pp. 165-168 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0003
By Raffaella Cribiore

Essays: Schools, Books, and Power

For Richer, For Poorer?: Free Education in England, c.1380–1530
pp. 169-187 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0006
By Nicholas Orme

Abstract: The education of poor children, especially boys, was seen as a worthy object of charity in medieval England. Many monasteries supported groups of poor boys from the thirteenth century onwards, and from the 1380s benefactors began to endow grammar schools offering free education to the public. This article argues that such charity tended to benefit wealthier families more than the poor to whom it claimed to minister. It was often given to boys with influential connections, did not always meet all the costs of education, and took for granted a social status that the poor would have found hard to reach.

Practicing For Print: The Hale Children’s Manuscript Libraries
pp. 188-209 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0009
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler

Abstract: As a home amusement and a form of literary apprenticeship, two generations of children in the same elite Boston family created their own lending libraries of hand-made books. The institutional procedures the Hale children invented for their libraries, and the contents of the books they illustrated and wrote, offer astute commentary on adult literary practices, and provide a rare vantage onto children’s own attitudes towards books and reading. The Hale libraries give evidence not only of how books socialize child readers, but also of the many ways in which print culture can be modified and re-imagined by children’s play.

Children as the Youthful Hope of an Old Empire: Race, Nationalism, and Elementary Education in China, 1895–1915
pp. 210-231 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0012
By Limin Bai

Abstract: In his writings Liang Qichao (1873–1929) used children as the symbolic representation of a new China. His vision of a young China and his notion that “education is the key to the survival of China” provided the context for the production of new elementary textbooks on history, Chinese language, geography, and ethics. The content of these textbooks reflected the intellectual milieu of the time: social Darwinism and race theory combined to highlight China’s own humiliations and her perilous position in an imperialist world, and to stimulate patriotism and nationalism among young students.

Blood Ties and Tongue Ties: The Role of Children in Shifting the Boundaries of Namibia’s German-Speaking Community
pp. 232-249 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0014
By Jason Owens

Abstract: Germany colonized South West Africa in 1884, then lost the country (present-day Namibia) after World War I. In order to escape the apartheid perpetuated by subsequent occupier South Africa, many black Namibians fled to support the SWAPO liberation movement, based in neighboring Angola. After South Africa bombed a camp that was home to many SWAPO supporters in 1978, SWAPO sent the first of a series of 428 Namibian three-to-five-year- olds to East Germany (a.k.a. the GDR) for protection, education, and socialist training. A decade later, they were unexpectedly “returned” after Namibia’s first all-race elections fell the same week as the Berlin Wall. Placing them with surviving relatives in the rural North seldom succeeded for more than a short period because the children no longer spoke their native language competently and frequently felt allegiance primarily to their other returning “siblings.” Members of SWAPO and of Namibia’s 30,000 ethnic Germans laid claims to these “GDR Kids,” but most children who had spent over eight years in Germany were enrolled in Namibia’s German-speaking schools. This article concludes that by integrating these and other Namibian German institutions, the GDR Kids altered the margins of what is considered German in this most German of former German colonies.

Contemporary Children: Questions of Learning and Labor

Contemporary Children: Questions of Learning and Labor
pp. 251-253 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0016
By Karen Sánchez-Eppler
Child Labor and Education for All: An Issue Paper
pp. 254-266 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0002
By Lorenzo Guarcello, Scott Lyon, Furio Camillo Rosati

Abstract: Education is a key element in the prevention of child labor; at the same time, child labor is one of the main obstacles to Education For All (EFA). Understanding the interplay between education and child labor is therefore critical to achieving both EFA and child labor elimination goals. This study largely confirms the conventional wisdom that child labor harms children’s ability to enter and survive in the school system, and makes it more difficult for children to derive educational benefit from schooling once in the system. The evidence also suggests that these negative effects are not limited to economic activity but also extend to household chores, and that the intensity of work (in economic activity or household chores) is particularly important in determining the impact of work on schooling. This evidence indicates that both the school quality and school access can play an important role in household decisions concerning whether children study or work.

Memories of Tomorrow: Children, Labor, and the Panacea of Formal Schooling
pp. 267-285 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0005
By Sarada Balagopalan

Abstract: This article provides a critical reading of current efforts in India to enroll in school all children between six and fourteen years of age. These efforts usually gain moral certitude through their being constructed within a binary frame of reference i.e. formal schooling as the space that “saves” child laborers. Neither exhaustive in its review of existing literature nor in its attempt to address the working of this binary worldwide, this article largely draws on different narratives to reveal the ways in which international policy discourse relies on a particular construction of children, childhood, and family in the non-Western world. The framing of the issue that the binary sets in place and its subsequent impact on policies is discussed through an interrogation of its underlying assumptions as well as its influence on the local. To transcend a culturally relativistic reading of these narratives as local examples, incapable of exercising larger analytic weight, the article utilizes these to discuss three dominant constructions that underlie this binary, namely constructions of the child, of school, and of labor.

Book Reviews

When Children Became People: The Birth of Childhood in Early Christianity (review)
pp. 287-291 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0008
By Alison G. Salvesen
A Tender Voyage: Children and Childhood in Late Imperial China (review)
pp. 292-294 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0011
By Valentina Boretti
Children in Colonial America (review)
pp. 295-297 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0013
By Caroline Cox
Learning to Forget: Schooling and Family Life in New Haven’s Working Class, 1870–1940 (review)
pp. 298-300 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0015
By Michael Zuckerman
The Dominion of Youth: Adolescence and the Making of a Modern Canada, 1920 to 1950 (review)
pp. 301-303 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0001
By Jonathan Anuik
The German Antifascist Classroom: Denazification in Soviet-Occupied Germany, 1945–1949 (review)
pp. 304-306 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0004
By Andrew Donson
Youth, Globalization, and the Law (review)
pp. 307-309 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0007
By Michael Grossberg
Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences (review)
pp. 310-312 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0010
By Susan Ferentinos


pp. 313-315 | DOI: 10.1353/hcy.0.0017


[gn_spoiler title=”Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2008″ open=”0″ style=”2″]


By Martha Saxton

Object Lesson

Christian and Wendy
By Wendy Ewald

The World Is at Our Door: Why Historians of Children and Childhood Should Open Up

By Paula Fass

Abstract: Paula Fass’s inspiring opening essay, “The World Is at Our Door,” invites readers to appreciate the rich array of new fields that an expanded vision of the history of childhood encompasses. Her comprehensive overview of scholars around the world includes disciplines that once seemed remote from the concerns of historians like neurobiology, anthropology, and economics. Fass challenges us to look to phenomena like migration and its far-reaching consequences, globalized youth culture shaped by the electronic revolution and a world economy, and diverse models of modernization to grasp the possibilities of a truly global study of children and childhood.

Defining the Field: Nations and Childhoods

Challenges in the History of Childhood
By Peter N. Stearns

Abstract: The distinguished pioneer of the history of childhood and emotions, Peter Stearns, outlines a number of tasks and problems that await ambitious historians of children. One is familiar to practitioners in the field: creatively devising ways into the experience and imaginations of children who notoriously do not speak for themselves or leave records. This lack has left important gaps particularly in our understanding of young children, who have remained comparatively obscure to historians, while adolescents do, sometimes, leave traces of themselves, and parents and experts have traditionally left observations of the very young. Other significant tasks for historians include paying attention to class differences in analyses and making “a real commitment to comparison” as a historical method frequently lacking so far in much of the history of childhood.

Hidden in Plain View, The History of Children (and Childhood) in the Twenty-First-Century
By Joseph M. Hawes, Ray N. Hiner

Abstract: Joseph Hawes and Ray Hiner remind us that it is the unusual methodological difficulties of the field that have made it so hard to establish (and to initiate, for example, its own journal) while other historical areas of inquiry, born at more or less the same time, like African American history and women’s history came into their own much earlier. The authors caution, however, that early flourishing can generate conservatism, and they challenge historians to keep their focus on children, not be led back to the study of adults, as some studying African Americans have moved to whiteness and the study of women has led some to study masculinity. Hawes and Hiner express optimism that the wide interdisciplinarity, global reach, and the diversity of those who study children and childhood will keep its focus on children, where it belongs.

National Citizenship and Early Politics Shaping ‘The Century of the Child’ in Sweden and the United States
By Kriste Lindenmeyer, Bengt Sandin

Abstract: Kriste Lindenmeyer and Bengt Sandin have employed fruitfully a comparative approach to examine Progressive era American and Swedish ideals for children. They found that while both began with similar enthusiasm for protecting childhood and providing all children with education and health care, the actual policies of neither country wound up delivering on the promise of “the century of the child.” As they write, in both countries “adult priorities overwhelmed public policies.” Like the recent UNICEF report on the conditions of global childhood, this essay reminds us that while the virtues of western-style childhood have been assumed and, indeed, have been the model against which historians traditionally have measured other childhoods, these assumptions need rethinking, both as to the relative value of other cultural constructions of childhood as well as to the belief that western childhood has actually delivered on its promises.

How Latin America’s History of Childhood Came of Age
By Bianca Premo

Abstract: Bianca Premo introduces readers in her complex, challenging essay to the field of childhood studies that emerged officially in Latin America in the 1990s. But, reiterating the theme of Joseph Hawes’s “Hidden in Plain Sight,” Premo lays out the substantially longer history of the field as scholars of family history, of slavery, of illegitimacy, and of gender have been actually tracking childhood and children for many decades. Premo delineates the interactions among these disciplines while also indicating some of the distinguishing characteristics of Latin American childhood. She introduces notions of “circulating” childhoods passed in a variety of institutions and contexts rather than within one family, and of children adjusting to the economic pressures of globalization by multiplying the meanings of family and in the process, gaining more mothers.

Treading a Different Path: Thoughts from Childhood Studies in Chinese History
By Ping-chen Hsiung

Abstract: The author of A Tender Voyage, a study of childhood in Chinese history, Ping-chen Hsiung has surveyed the initial achievements of childhood studies in China and explains how a new emphasis on cultural history and the new importance of tracking human development has made childhood an inviting field for “creativity and ambition.” In her provocative narrative of recent Chinese intellectual developments, she challenges scholars of childhood to “both enhance and shake up” history and childhood studies by questioning very basic assumptions such as human development being inevitably linear and social change as based in modern notions of time. Her profoundly destabilizing questions lay the groundwork for her own call for historians to shake up not only childhood studies but also, potentially, all studies.

Age as a Category of Historical Analysis

By Laura L. Lovett
Reflections on Age as a Category of Historical Analysis
By Steven Mintz

Abstract: Steven Mintz lays out some of the complex ways age functions, both to describe expected processes of maturation and to allot legal statuses and categories of responsibility. Like other scholars, he likens the category of age to that of gender as a way to organize power, but points out that age has less definitional power than gender and has undergone more change over time as a prescriptive system. He sees age, paradoxically, as gaining power as a prescriptive system while gender loses it.

Age and Authority: Adult-Child Relations during the Twentieth-Century in the United States
By Stephen Lassonde

Abstract: Lassonde, using his own meticulous research on the twentieth century Catholic Church and the Little League, sketches the way changes in these institutions inform us about shifts in attitudes toward authority in the larger culture. In addition to the essay’s particular insights, it also offers a model of how the study of youth can contribute to intellectual and social history altogether.

Through the Looking Glass: Age, Stages, and Historical Analysis
By Leslie Paris

Abstract: Leslie Paris’s essay delineates the way the experience of age, particularly childhood and adolescence shifts shape, reaches forward into the future and dips back into time past. Even as experts slice age into smaller and smaller cohorts trying to establish minute verities, it eludes capture. Urging historians of childhood on, she argues that we will have achieved an important goal, “Once it is no longer possible to write history without greater awareness of age.

Age as a Category of Historical Analysis. History, Agency, and Narratives of Childhood
By Mary Jo Maynes

Abstract: Mary Jo Maynes’s work asks us to reconceptualize and broaden our notion of children’s agency. Maynes sees this problem as analogous to that of learning to recognize the agency of women which is disguised by the everydayness of their activities and by prevailing views that historical change is a result of the public actions of powerful individuals. She concludes, “The effort to assess the place of girls in history brings us to question the very notion of historical agency itself.” She goes on to show how life stories, particularly retrospective accounts of childhood, can offer new insights into both the agency of the young and the historical significance of childhood.–M.S.

Contemporary Children: Problems and Policies

Seeking Asylum Alone: Unaccompanied and Separated Children and Refugee Protection in the U.S.
By Jacqueline Bhabha, Susan Schmidt

Abstract: Among the scholars working on problems of today’s children is Jacqueline Bhabha, an expert in international law, migration, and children’s rights, who, with Susan Schmidt, has just completed a study comparing the (often harrowing) experiences in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, of children who, increasingly, find themselves applying for asylum alone. This study has growing significance in the post 9/11 world as developed countries erect higher and higher barriers in the way of asylum seekers and as asylum seekers increasingly include children traveling on their own.

Children’s Involvement in War, Historical and Social Contexts
By Alcinda Manuel Honwana

Abstract: Alcinda Honwana, a scholar of international development, has just completed a book on the use of child soldiers in conflicts around the world. Her work focuses on Mozambique and Angola and points to aspects of neoliberalism and structural adjustment programs that have disrupted the abilities of families and communities to introduce children to and train them in the responsibilities of young adulthood. Societies with large numbers of children drawn into militias have the usual terrible post-conflict problems, but, in addition, have to reintegrate into useful life a potentially nihilistic generation of young people whose de facto rites of passage have been nothing short of diabolical.

On Leaving the Young Out of History
By Pamela Reynolds



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